the teacher should keep away from the traditional assessment

Use them as a means to learn not only to use it simply as a way to clarify or teaching In the second case, the student’s position, including a negative mission that receives the information that we offer him a position, while in the first case a student has a positive role planned with the teacher to achieve where the objective is clear in the mind of the teacher and students alike and follows the teacher a lot of methods that help to further the interaction between student and teaching materials and examples of these techniques that the student sees the film to answer no questions or seen perform a test to answer some of the problems or the unzip one of the models to recognize the location of each part of the model and its relationship to other parts.
(3) the evaluation phase:
Often ending task of teaching aids when the teacher Once you have used students Vinasrv immediately after the screening or testing or viewing maps or watch a TV program etc …………… This is a commonly used means of truncated education does not lead the purpose of use. In order to achieve educational means the objectives set by the teacher to be used must be followed by a period of evaluation in order to make sure the teacher that the goals set which has been completed and that the desired learning has been achieved and the means used by commensurate with these objectives, if ever film inventory of some of the questions or raise some problems, it is incumbent The teacher answer these questions and come up with appropriate solutions to these problems can be verbally is done by discussion or in writing, so that the teacher promotion of the correct answer at the same time the teacher assessment method used by all respects in terms of relevance in terms of material and the view of the level of The aim of the students use them and retain this assessment in his records when he returns to use these times to know when and how to use them to achieve better learning. We affirm the foregoing that the teacher should keep away from the traditional assessment methods students were asked their opinion as they have seen? And turning to the specific substantive questions even recognize exactly what the student has achieved and what his death achieved in order to be better able to identify weaknesses and ways to remedy them.
(4) follow-up phase:
Supposed to gain experience leads to the desire to increase the development of this experience and gain new experiences should be the teacher works through the use of educational means to achieve it. There is no doubt that watching the movie or an experiment or take a trip or listen to a recorded tape will answer some of the questions raised by the subject matter, which raises at the same time many questions related to such questions as students in varying degrees different in the utilization of these teaching aids and so must the teacher that the creation of areas of expertise to complete and the continuation of the learning process and that is followed by the use of teaching aids a lot of discussion and dialogue to answer what questions raised and to clarify new concepts and linked to previous experiences through the similarities and differences among them a statement. May need to be re-screening of the film or the experience or make new experiences or study some samples, models or do to supplement search by reading and learn new or go trips to the library and baptizing some teachers to chapter is divided into groups or committees to each one of these previous works. Some of going to the library and some of them doing a fair or panel on the subject of the study and some of them cost to look for another movie and presented to the chapter and go off each group to complete its work under the guidance and supervision of the teacher and after the end of its Chapter meets fully to listen and watch and discuss what was done by all This group and linking together different knowledge leading to enrich the student experience on the subject of the study and his knowledge of all aspects of the subject and form an integrated concepts around it.

 

 
Devices teaching aids

A optical display devices:

1. optical blackboard (the monitor above the head OVER HEAD PROJECTOR

stages of the use of educational means

When the calendar on the teacher to leave a space in the paper Calendar stating the means and type of sources and address and the time it took and what it contained a summary of educational material and opinion on the suitability of the students and the curriculum and achieve the goals … etc 0
8. Follow-up means 00
And follow-up activity include colors that can be exercised by the student after the use of the means of the events of more interaction between students
Stages of the use of educational means
(1) the preparation phase
It needs to set up a lot of things all affect the results that we get and the goals that we seek to achieve.
(A) Preparation method: it is essential that the teacher recognizes the means by which chose them to recognize the contents, characteristics and shortcomings, as does its experience and action plan to be used should be watched the movie before it is displayed or listen to a pre-sound recordings or performs tests before being presented to students or examine the existing maps and know the relevance of the subject matter and objectives.
(B) draw up a plan of action: after that the teacher recognizes the contents of the vehicle and the relevance of the objectives of the lesson puts the same vision in principle on how to make use of them who shall limit the questions and problems or new words that help the means to answer them then plans to how to provide the types of educational activities practiced by the student.
(C) create the minds of students: so that the teacher about the way the debate up and dialogue to give a picture of the subject of the means used and their relevance to previous experiences to students and their importance to the students clearly aware of the purpose of using the means and what to expect the teacher of them as a result and improves the teacher if he has an inventory of these questions and problems After discussion and writing on the blackboard with the addition of new concepts and words that dealt with the subject of the study and the teachers of the longer in advance of the problem and the print and distribute revolve around him to discuss the preliminary like to walk in the lesson or a film or an experiment or take a trip until it becomes so because of this experience and the clear goal of students seeking from behind to get the knowledge that help to answer these questions or solve raised specific problems.
(D) the preparation of the place:
Of the most reduces the student benefit from what the teacher from teaching aids used to see the lack of interest of the teacher to creating the place that helps to take advantage of this means if overlooked lesson (dim room) Special Alert optical not be seen only when the film, said that interest in these factors create field the right to use the means utilized properly leads to increase its usefulness.
(2) phase of use:
Stop to take advantage of educational tools to a large extent on the manner in which the teacher is followed in the use of the means and the extent of student involvement a positive part in getting the expertise and responsibility for the way the teacher at this stage several aspects.
A) creating a conducive environment for learning: It is to make sure the teacher during the use of educational means that everything is going as planned, it should note the clarity of sound and image while viewing movies or photos, maps hanging or material presented in place allows for everyone to see it or that the voice sound recordings up to all students.
B) identify the purpose of the use of the means:
And here must be on the teacher to determine for himself the purpose of the use of educational means at every step during the course of the lesson was the teacher uses the film to provide a new lesson or used to explain the lesson, summarizing, to assess student achievement Similarly, the teacher may ask the students watch microscopic slides under a microscope to see the contents of the cell has asking them to go to the library to view, read and answer some questions and so all the way to achieve a goal of the lesson defined objectives and must be careful the teacher that the student take a positive attitude towards the use of educational means jointly., alone or in groups to choose the right educational means, for example, such as selection of movies or trips or preparation the work of photographers or the preparation of the paintings is also involved in raising questions and formulate the problems that relate to the topic of the means used and likewise should be involved in taking responsibility for Chapter preparation and operation of the devices, which makes use of the means of integrated educational process works to enrich the student experience and are essential in the use of means learning that the teacher works on

repair what may happen to her failures, and what might replace the damaged ones

(K) not to keep the vehicle in front of the students after use in order to avoid the follow-up they left for the teacher.
L answer any inquiries necessary for the learner about the means.
4. rules after the completion of the use of means …
(A) calendar means: to learn about the effectiveness or lack of effectiveness in achieving the goal of which, and how the students interact with them, and the need to use it or not use it again.
(B) Maintenance means: any repair what may happen to her failures, and what might replace the damaged ones, and re-cleaned and coordination, in order to be ready for use again.
(C) Name means: any stored in a suitable place to keep them when requested or used in the times to come. (Maher Ismail – p. 173) 0
* Basics in the use of teaching aids:
1. Identify the learning objectives achieved by means of accurately ..
This requires a good knowledge of the formulation of objectives in a manner accurately measurable and knowledge levels also objectives: mental, motor, emotional … etc.
And the ability of the user to define these goals, assisted on the proper choice of the means that achieve this goal or that.
2. knowledge of the target group and observed characteristics ..
The mean target pupils category, and user education means he has to be knowledgeable of the age and level Alzkaia and cognitive needs of learners in order to ensure the effective use of the device 0
3. knowledge of the school curriculum and how these means and the integration of the curriculum ..
The concept of the modern approach:
Article or content does not mean that in a textbook but includes: objectives, content, teaching and Calendar mode, meaning that the user of the device teaching him good knowledge of the objectives and content of the course material and way of teaching and way of Calendar so that it can more appropriately and better for the means it requires the use of a mass or individual way .
4. experience means prior to use ..
And teacher user is on experimenting with the means before use and this helps him to make an appropriate decision on the use and determine the appropriate time to display, as well as the right place, as he saves himself from unpleasant surprises may occur was showing a film is desired movie or be a display device unfit for work, or Description means to be in non-conforming directory for the content of this causing embarrassment to the teacher and chaos among students.
5. create the minds of the disciples to receive the content of the message ..

 and methods used to create the minds of the disciples:
• directing a series of questions to the students, urging them to follow the means.
• summarize the content with the means to draw attention to important points not exposed to the summary.
• Identify a specific problem helps the means to resolve them.
6. create the right atmosphere for the use of the means:
This includes all the natural conditions of the place, which means it will be used, such as: lighting, ventilation, saving devices, use of timely lesson 0
If the user of the device did not succeed in creating the right atmosphere, it is certainly the failure to obtain the desired results.
7. calendar means 00
It includes Calendar consequences of the use of means with goals that were prepared for it 0
And is usually Calendar tool to measure the collection of students after using the means, or knowledge of studying trends and tendencies, skills and the ability of the means to create an atmosphere of the educational process 0

the student through the use of different instructional experiences

This is intended to make the education process more economical by increasing the proportion of learning to its cost. The goal of the President means of achieving the goals of educational learning measurable effective level of cost in time, effort and resources.
Third: teaching aids to help stimulate student interest and satisfy his need to learn
It takes the student through the use of different instructional experiences that excite some interest and achieve its objectives.
The higher the educational experiences through which the learner closer to realism has become a concrete meaning is closely related to the objectives which the student seeks to achieve and desires that are eager to satisfy 0
Fourth, help to increase the student experience, making it more willing to learn
This willingness, which if reached by the pupil be taught in the best picture 0
An example of this watch a film about some of the topics the school create the necessary experience for the student and make him more willing to learn 0
Fifth: the help of teaching aids on the participation of all the senses of the learner 000
The involvement of all the senses in the learning processes lead to the consolidation and deepening of this learning and teaching aids to help the participation of all the senses of the learner, and thus help to create a well-established close ties between what the student has learned, it follows that the survival of the impact of learning 0
Sixth: it is teaching aids help to avoid falling into the verbal 000
It is intended Ballfezah use of teacher terms which do not have at the student significance that have when the teacher does not attempt to clarify these abstract terms means material concrete help to form visible images in the mind of the student, but if varied such means, the word acquires dimensions of meaning approaching him from the truth which It helps to increase the convergence and overlap between the meanings of words in the mind of both the teacher and the pupil.
Seventh: the diversity of educational methods lead to the formation of sound concepts …
Eighth: help increase student participation in the positive gain experience 000
Develop teaching aids meditation on the student’s ability and accuracy of observation and follow the scientific thinking to get to solve problems. This method necessarily lead to improved quality of learning and raise the performance of students
Ninth: help in the diversification of reinforcement methods that lead to the installation of correct responses (Skinner) theory.
Tenth: help to the diversity of teaching methods to meet the individual differences among the educated 0
Atheist ten: to lead the order and the continuation of the ideas that formed by the pupil 0
XII lead to behavior modification and the formation of new trends 0

 
Among the benefits of teaching aids (teaching techniques):
1. thrill and excitement.
2. attract students to the subject of the lesson.
3. facilitate the task of the teacher to clarify the information and bring it closer and shorten the time to do so.
4. send the spirit of innovation and creativity of the teacher, and force him to sound thinking on the subject studied.
5. develop the student’s ability to think and observation and comparison .tdjal article grainy among students.
6. increase the learner’s experience and make it as close to realism.
7. help to involve all the senses.
8. reduce the fall in verbal excess.
9. be sound concepts.
10. increase the positive pupils.
11. diversity enhancement methods.
12. help to take into account individual differences.
13. help students arrange ideas.
14. lead to behavior modification and configure trends.

materials and tools used by the teacher to the transfer of information

First there is the note I like to refer to it, namely that it is worth the teacher to distinguish between educational materials and educational devices.
The materials include educational Film, cylinders, maps, photos, models, and other materials.
The educational devices are: hardware or special run movies and cylinder machines, so when we say teaching aids we mean materials and devices together but when we say education techniques, this goes beyond just merely materials and equipment to organizations and concepts, methods and activities in scientific structured framework.
Educational method definitions knew many definitions Among those definitions are:
Component of the overall educational system elements seek to achieve specific educational goals.
Materials and equipment and educational positions used by the teacher in the field of education and communication system in a manner particular to clarify the interpretation of a vague idea or concept or explain one of the topics in order to achieve the objectives of the specific student behavior.
Tools and methods that are used in different educational situations which never rely solely on understanding the words, symbols and numbers.
Range of expertise, materials and tools used by the teacher to the transfer of information to the mind of the student, whether in the classroom, or outside in order to improve the educational situation, which is the student’s basic point.
Each tool or material used by the teacher in order to achieve the educational process appropriate atmosphere helps to access Ptlamivh to correct science and knowledge they in turn benefit from them in the learning process and gain experience.
Educators may be included in the designation was teaching aids have multiple names, including:
Legends, visual aids, hearing aids, aids, teaching aids, and the latest naming her education or learning techniques technology.
Education and techniques means the application of science knowledge in scientific purposes in an orderly fashion 0
We conclude from this comprehensive definition of educational aids (teaching techniques) it:
All methods and tools and hardware and regulations used in the education system in order to achieve specific educational goals 0
Classification of teaching aids (teaching techniques)
Try specialists over a long classified as educational tools periods, and has already resulted in us in the field many of the classifications and was the most important rating (Adjardel) is one of the most classifications importance is the most important common so as to accuracy taxonomic basis for the world Adjardel and this category called many of Titles Sometimes It called (cone experience) and sometimes called (the pyramid of experience) and from there called rating (Dell) for the means of educational and some of them called rating (Adjardel) for educational means. When we examine the classification of Adjardel educational means we find put direct experience in the base of the pyramid and which I consider the best types of educational methods because the student which deals with real expertise, which will benefit some experience in all senses and which will act real experience the natural by its own conduct, and we find the contrast in the top of the pyramid verbal symbols that only affect the sense of hearing only (Whenever we went to Zada ​​base Cone degree sensual, and as we head to the increased degree of abstraction top of the pyramid) and this only applies to the cone experience.
Watching the cone’s Experience (Edgar Dale) notes three types of education:
The first type is the so-called education through various practices and activities which include the cone (direct experiences aimed – amended experiences – experiences actress or the so-called Palmmsarhh).
Type II: the so-called education through the observations and views which include the Cone (clarification process – Field visits – exhibitions – educational television and animated films – still images – audio) recordings.
Type III: the so-called education through mental abstractions and analysis which includes the cone (visual symbols – verbal symbols).
But the question that arises (Why does not always provide the direct experience?)
Because there are some difficulties that might hinder the teacher in choosing a particular educational means, and between those difficulties as follows: -
1 – provide direct experience difficulty at all times.
2 – the seriousness of direct experience.
3 – direct experience quite expensive.